0000006865 00000 n Animal manure is a major source of NO3 contamination in tropical Sub-Saharan Africa river basins. Digital elevation of Nyando River Basin Source: (WKIEMP, 2006) Nandi and Kericho counties lie at an altitude ranging between 1300m and 3000m above sea level. In order to control excess NO3 discharge in the basin, better guidelines for animal manure use, land conservation measures and improvement of sanitation systems should be prioritized. The Nyando Basin drains major agricultural and industrial zones of eastern Kenya. NO3 concentration in tropical river basins vary spatially and is governed by the predominant land use. Stable isotope data and hydrochemistry complemented each other in identifying the potential NO3 sources and their spatialtemporal variation in the basin. Figure 1: Map of Study Area showing position of Yala and Nyando River sub-catchments (Source: Nobert et al., 2014) Nyando River Basin The Nyando basin covers an area of about 3,587 km2 and is bounded by latitude 010 N and 025 S and longitude 3450 E and 3550 E, within the scarps of the Kavirondo Gulf (KARI, 2006). Nyando River Basin in the Republic of Kenya. 0000053798 00000 n The Nyando River's origins are traced back to two native forests in the Rift Valley: the Mau Forest and the Tinderet Forest. 0000011482 00000 n tigated on the hydrological extremes of Nyando River and Lake Tana catchments, which are located in two source re-gions of the Nile River basin. If you go there, locals have named it mortuary because of the many carcasses both of animals and occasionally of the people found there and when you add silt River Nyando cant empty into the lake thereby displacing people. The Nyando River is one of the major rivers draining into Lake Victoria from the Kenyan side of the basin. Nam Thoe (B) and Okana-Ombeyi (C) wetlands exist to the North West and North of the Nyando wetland. The Nyando River has two main tributaries, the small Nyando River (Kericho-Upper Nyando) and the Ainamotua River (Nandi-Lower Nyando). 0000007824 00000 n River Nyando. River Nyando is subjected to a variety of human-related pressures. Corresponding author. This list is arranged by drainage basin, with respective tributaries indented under each larger stream's name. The district is named after the Nyando River. The Nyaidho, Awach Kano, and Asawo Rivers, which originate from Kendu escarpments, join the Nyando River at the Nyando wetland (also called Miruka swamp) (A). The Dam will be located in Kisumu and Kericho counties. Integration of 11B, 15N, 18O and hydrochemistry is a powerful tool for constraining NO3 sources in terrestrial environments. The river is the source of water for thousands of residents of Nyando subcounties and their livestock. Nyando Sub County Police Commander Lawrence Matete confirmed the incident and said the deceased was carried away by heavy currents in the river. These findings were substantiated via nitrate source apportionment using a Bayesian isotopic mixing model which showed manure and/or sewage were the leading sources of river NO3 input in the basin, contributing 70% (MA), 65% (RI), 60% (S) and 46% (TF). Due to the steep gradient of the terrain in this region, it is expected to have the highest level of erosion. Notably, the Nyando River Basin experiences two rainy seasons between March and May, characterized by prolonged rainfall and scarce rainfall between October and December. 0000002089 00000 n BACKGROUND ON THE LOCATION: Nyando District is a fairly new district, which broke away from Kisumu District in Nyanza Province in 1998. S. Sondu Miriu River - Suam River. The Nyando River Basin covers an area of 3500 square kilometres in Western Kenya. 0000001918 00000 n 0000010581 00000 n 0000008759 00000 n Notably, the Nyando River Basin experiences two rainy seasons between March and May, characterized by prolonged rainfall and scarce rainfall between October and December. The Study aimed at (1) formulating a plan of Integrated Flood Management (IFM) for the Nyando river basin covering review of existing flood control plans and community-based activities, (2) supporting communities to strengthen capacities in Flood Mitigation of Nyando River Using Duflow Modelling Duflow surface water hydrodynamic model has been applied using a case study from Nyando catchment in the western part of Kenya in Africa to simulate various extreme flood behaviours and their retardation levels by using selected structural measures as flood mitigation techniques. The NIB Western Schemes Senior Manager, Joel Tanui at one of the affected farms in Ahero. River water was monitored spatially in the basin for hydro-chemical and isotopic parameters from July 2016 to May 2018. 0000001088 00000 n 0000007803 00000 n 0000003453 00000 n 0000079001 00000 n 0000098005 00000 n 170-192. 0000010560 00000 n 0000008780 00000 n Excess nitrate (NO3) discharge into fresh water resources poses detrimental effects on ecosystems and human health, yet the understanding of its potential sources is lacking in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. 570 farm holders, 2000 farmers and 20,000 dependents Nyando district bordered the Rift Valley Province. 0000001689 00000 n 0000009655 00000 n We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. He disclosed that through well-wishers, they were able to provide Ojwang' with school supplies such as school uniform, several pairs of shoes, a bag, stationery and masks. e Mau forest and . 0000006031 00000 n 0000011461 00000 n ReliefWeb has been the leading online source for reliable and timely humanitarian information on global crises and disasters since 1996. 0000009634 00000 n The furthest stream is also often called the head stream.Headwaters are often small streams with cool waters because of shade and recently melted ice or snow. of household farmers. Boron isotope (11B) data was categorically helpful in overcoming the limitations of 15N-, 18O-NO3 to discriminate between manure and sewage sources. In the Headlines UAP beats CIC to claim top spot in general insurance Nairobi River - Naro Moru River - Njoro River - Nyando River - Nzoia River. Nitrate in precipitation was the least NO3 source, contributing <1% across the basin. Area under Irrigation. Tinderet forest located in the Rift Valley. 0000005113 00000 n 0000002669 00000 n The river which is known for developing powerful currents at times, is usually used by the locals as a source of livelihood. The region is also endowed with many springs which feed into the rivers. trailer << /Size 101 /Info 62 0 R /Root 65 0 R /Prev 797699 /ID[<30a2de778060c14babb6d9424cbef445><5249c0afe703dd8e094b0cfc18ee9bfe>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 65 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 60 0 R /Metadata 63 0 R /PageLabels 58 0 R >> endobj 99 0 obj << /S 423 /L 530 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 100 0 R >> stream Source of irrigation water. 0000005327 00000 n Ammonium in fertilizers and/or rain was third contributing about 10% NO3 for all land uses, while NO3 fertilizers showed 12% contribution across the basin. 0000006844 00000 n 0000014896 00000 n Most parts of the counties are hilly with basement rock system, which is distinct to the South and along the Nandi escarpments giving way to thick layers of red soil anthills (GOK, 2009). Some of the It shall be 60km from Kisumu City and 5km upstream of Muhoroni town. The other sources include the small rivers, streams and springs which feed into the main river and its surrounding. 100 left homeless after River Nyando bursts its banks. 0000006010 00000 n This is a very short list of rivers in Kenya. This study integrated hydrochemistry, multi-isotope tracers (15N-NO3, 18O-NO3, 11B) and a Bayesian mixing model (mixSIAR) to improve on the apportionment of multiple NO3 sources in the Nyando River basin of Lake Victoria, Kenya. 0000003681 00000 n Nyando River however Nyando River drains an area of vast and varied land still plays an important role as a major source of livelihoods for riparian communities as well as being a major spawning ground for potamodromous fishes (Raburu, 2003). 9.1 Nyando Wetland scenarios 133 9.2 Building scenarios with regards to the Constitution of Kenya and Vision 2030 134 9.3 Participatory Management of Nyando Wetland: key recommendations 141 9.4 The Nyando Wetland Integrated Management Plan 142 References Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies: Vol. Maphill presents the map of NYANDO in a wide variety of map types and styles. Nyando district was a former district in Kenya which broke away from Kisumu District in Nyanza Province in 1998. ScienceDirect is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Nitrate source apportionment in the complex Nyando tropical river basin in Kenya. This page was last changed on 29 July 2013, at 03:59. 0000012219 00000 n Whereas it is common knowledge that the Nyando River Basin is one of the most degraded of all the river basins in the Kenyan portion of the Lake Victoria Basin, minimum efforts have been made to develop a suitable Management Plan, let alone any sustained initiatives that would minimize the escalating degradation of these biodiversity-rich wetlands. %PDF-1.3 % 0000003210 00000 n Maps are assembled and kept in a high resolution vector Floods have displaced many who reside in Kisumu County, along the River Nyando forcing many to seek shelter in schools and churches within the area. The river source is at the Tinderet and the Mau mountains. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2020.125926. R. Ragati River - Ruiru River. The data shows that NO3 concentrations in the basin are governed by the predominant land use. 0000003720 00000 n No. Two indigenous forests the Mau forest and Tinderet forest found in this region are the source of the Nyando River. We build each map individually with regard to the characteristics of the map area and the chosen graphic style. Patrick Odundo and Maxwell Otieno want the company closed until it finds an alternative waste disposal channel, arguing that the effluent is threatening aquatic life in River Nyando and Lake Victoria. Mixed agriculture (MA) land use recorded significantly higher NO3 concentrations (8.810.6mgL1), compared to other land use zones: residential & industrial (RI) 3.42.2mgL1, sugarcane (S) 3.21.5mgL1 and tea & forest areas (TF) 3.01.1mgL1. Using River Nyando for irrigation, it is expected to open up the area whose irrigation potential is yet to be tapped. In the petition, the lawyer explains that Miguna is a Kenyan citizen by birth, born in Magina village on the shores of River Nyando in the Kano Plains, Kisumu County. Sometimes the source of the most remote tributary may be in an area that is more marsh-like, in which the "uppermost" or most remote section of the marsh would be the true source.For example, the source of the River Tees is marshland.. Its capital was a small town called Awasi, located 30 kilometres east of the Kisumu. Rice worth Sh.800 million at Ahero and West Kano irrigation schemes has been destroyed after River Nyando broke its banks and swept through the farms. The tender for the multipurpose dam designed in Soil N ranked second with its highest proportional river NO3 contribution of 41%, recorded for the TF land use, followed by 29% (S), 24% (RI) and 18% (MA). Residents said the disposal of waste into the river makes the water unfit for domestic use. The Soin-Koru Dam Development project is proposed to be located on the Nyando River in the vicinity of Muhoroni in the Western part of Kenya. Vector quality. (2020). The Awach-Kano River flows into the main Nyando River 15 km downstream of the small Nyando-Ainamotua confluence. We are standing next to Singida, River Nyandos entry point to Lake Victoria. Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. 0000003741 00000 n 56, International Symposium on Isotope Hydrology, Vienna, Austria, 20-24 May 2019, pp. 0000005780 00000 n Hb```f``AX, @'F,!s0j?'`hP3S}oS>H ,n 4>{"I4 Itq,.OUe1wv:-?Xk,=gp9ttJiS"$qX"K-bn. Hundreds of rice farmers in Kisumu are counting losses after the raging waters of River Nyando destroyed 7,500 acres of paddy. 0000001711 00000 n 0000053876 00000 n Land use controls Kenyan riverine nitrate discharge into Lake Victoria evidence from Nyando, Nzoia and Sondu Miriu river catchments. The National Government has allocated funds for the construction of Koru-Soin dam upstream River Nyando to curb flooding in the area. Photo by KNA. About 750,000 persons reside within the Nyando Basin, most of whom live in the Nyando District The Nyando River's origins are traced back to two native forests in the Rift Valley: the Mau Forest and the Tinderet Forest. T. Tana River (Kenya) - Thika River - Tsavo River - Turkwel River - Thugi River Y. Yala River. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. 2,586.5 Acres. The source of Nyando River is traced to two indigenous forests; th. 2020 Elsevier B.V. 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