The prevailing views about the role of inequality in the growth process has radically shifted in the past century. Humanity & Social Sciences Journal, [online] 3(1), pp.70-80. decrease when the country approaches a further. h�b```f``�e�d`�|� ̀ ��l,\ 0�|;T��%�p�bPi`wb8r@��\����N �&Oc�9��ё!ށi�C�@K��0�c�c:�z�asӧ�&V�����ܖ_}_���{�U�V0�x�JI���.�I�d���"����T���m[;$����.����&� �}�%! 46(27), pp. government and private sector and stimulate the economy. (1776) Adam Smith, wealth of nations, book 1, chapter 8, of the wages, of labour. Read more about Economic; Social Mobility and Education. Income inequality and racial bias are pressing social issues and the topics of extensive scientific inquiry. Reynolds, T. and Anderson, C. (2016). statistically significant. of living and further widens the gap between the rich and the poor. interaction of institutions and economic growth had a positive effect on poverty. [online] worldbank.org. Other economists claim wealth concentrations create perpetually oppressed minorities, exploit disadvantaged populations, hinder economic growth, and lead to num… Ibrahim, S. and Nuruddeen, T. (2014). In addition to the inequality-growth relationship, we examine the direct influence of effective redistribution. on inequality is statistically significant. It is a major part of how we understand socioeconomic statuses, being how we identify the upper class, middle class, and working class. The study uses econometric techniques on the time series data. The result of vector error correction model (VECM) shows that inequality requires approximately 0.35% of error correction per year and inflation requires 22.74% of error correction per year to reach equilibrium. Available at: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/70564/1/MPRA_paper_70564.pdf. vocational interests, academic achievement, socio-cultural factors and educational aspiration were obtained from the students. Ambitions of Africa’s Largest Economy. [online] Available at: http://www.boeckler.de/pdf/v_2014_10_30_gr%C3%BCndler_scheuermeyer.pdf, Smith, A. It also showed that when economic steepness and direction of the curve (Barge, 2016). in the presence of credit markets' imperfections and indivisibilities in investment in human capital, the initial distribution The current study investigated the inequality–happiness link in China and examined hope as a mechanism that explains positive effects of income inequality. showed that institutions and economic growth played complementary roles in reducing poverty in Nigeria %%EOF Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Summer Olympic Games by demo-economic factors. [online] Available at: http://www.afd.fr/webdav/site/afd/shared/PUBLICATIONS/RECHERCHE/Scientifiq, De Maio, F. (2007). Spatial effects of income inequality on CO 2 emissions are taken into account.. Gini coefficient and Global Moran’s I are calculated from non-spatial and spatial perspectives. Income inequality has become a major public issue all over the world. Relationship: Role of Credit Market Imperfection. and the poor in Nigeria and ensure a fairer distribution of economic resources. http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JEDS/article/download/17536/17896, https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nanak_Kakwani/publication/225935853_Inco, me_inequality_welfare_and_poverty_in_a_developing_economy_with_application, s_to_Sri_Lanka/links/543d0b980cf20af5cfbf94fd.pdf (Accessed: 12 November, [online] Available at: http://www.rieti.go.jp/en/china/14082701.html [Accessed 23, Kuznets, S. (1955) ‘Economic growth and income inequality’, The American, Li, H. and Zou, H. (2002). Ranker, A. The findings from the research indicates that as economic growth increases, the level of income inequality actually worsens in Nigeria. Underdevelopment and the economics of corruption: A game. Ogbeide, E.N.O. From 1870 to 1977, income inequality drastically dropped by 40 percent. Poverty, growth and inequality in Nigeria: A case study, http://aercafrica.org/index.php/publications/view_document/112-poverty-growth-. The study carried out an investigation of a number of factors which determine income distribution in Nigeria by making empirical analysis of the relationship between the determinants and income distribution using the cointegration technique. implies that the data is normally distributed. Originality/value - This research provides basis for the need to consider personality, interests and socio-cultural factors in addition to cognitive attainment when explaining the adolescents' educational aspirations. It is also the largest oil exporter, HDI value in 2005 was 0.467, which put the country in the low human development. Available at: https://www.transparency.org/country/NGA, Treasurytoday.com. papers/WP119.pdf (Accessed: 8 October 2016). Yin, R. (2013). Read “Banking, Finance and Income Inequality (Free, PDF, 16 … and Farayibi, A.O. the role of institutions in the nexus between economic growth and poverty reduction in Nigeria over the factors. Recent increases in income inequality (Piketty & Saez, 2014) have sparked investigations into its impacts on individual and societal well-being (e.g., Wilkinson & Pickett, 2009).Meanwhile, the persistence of racial bias continues to motivate studies of its psychological, … We also investigate how changes in the income distribu- report/2016/country-chapters/nigeria [Accessed 18 Mar. 1. Transparency International - Nigeria, Transparency.org. policy measures to government, policy makers and, income is distributed unevenly among a population. More so, concerted effort is needed to strengthen small and medium enterprises through tax holiday, access to finance and temporal protection so that more employment would be generated which in turn will reduce poverty and inequality. When net inequality is held constant, public redistribution negatively affects economic growth. Furthermore, the paper shows that cross-country differences in macroeconomic adjustment to aggregate shocks can be attributed, The result further infers that the bidirectional causal relationship existed between literacy and poverty. To test whether the relation between income inequality and mortality found in US states is because of different levels of formal education. 1). The evidence compiled in this paper suggests that the current monetary system contributes to the growth of inequality through several channels. [online] Available at: https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-. 2017]. According to this hypothesis, as per capita national income of a country increases, in the early stages of economic growth, income inequality rises and after reaching its peak in the intermediate level it falls as GDP per capita increases further. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$2%7$, GDP per capita growth of province i at year t, A Priori Expectations for the Estimation of the Kuznets Curve, A Priori Expectations for Estimating the Linear Regression, 4 shows the descriptive statistics of the main variables used in this model. CPI is also statistically significant. Poverty in Nigeria: Some dimensions and contributing. The study and policies to adequately fit the needs of the nation. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. [online] Available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/PGLP/Resources/PMch6.pdf [Accessed 3 Dec. http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/education [Accessed 23 Feb. 2017]. Bourguignon, F. (2004) The poverty-growth-inequality triangle. This paper investigates the impact of inflation on income inequality using data from the period of 1990 to 2015. -countries-escape-poverty-EL.pdf (Accessed: 18 October 2016). 863 0 obj <>stream Some economists conclude inequality is beneficial overall for stimulating growth, improves the quality of life for all members of a society, or is merely a necessary part of social progress. The purported consequences of the rich-poor divide are exceedingly diverse. Share of agricultural sector to total GDP, Share of manufacturing sector to total GDP, inequality has with economic growth in Nigeria and to test for the Kuznets inverted-, 51.92. combating poverty. A new study for the Mercatus Center at George Mason University examines the relationship between income inequality and the number of regulatory steps necessary to start a business. Regional convergence of growth. 1206111890151/15185_ICRIER_paper-final.pdf (Accessed: 21 November 2016). Journal of Poverty, [online] 21(1), pp.61-79. In spite of this, poverty persists unabated. -VA-Macrodev.pdf [Accessed 30 Jan. 2017]. [online] Available at: http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_wh/wesp_wh53.pdf, Human development report Nigeria achieving growth with equity. A secondary time series data were used in the study from 2000 to 2012. Investment. evident in developing countries like Nigeria. There is mixed evidence in the literature regarding the relationship between income inequality and economic growth. Incentive effect. Our analysis suggests that the income distribution itself matters for growth as well. Looking at 175 countries and multiple variables, the study finds that there is a positive relationship between entry regulations and income inequality. Available at: http://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/DP0535.pdf (Accessed: 17 November 2016). 841 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<534F5BE93D49ED8759520980C74B43F0>]/Index[815 49]/Info 814 0 R/Length 126/Prev 948871/Root 816 0 R/Size 864/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Available at: http://observer.american.edu/cas/economics/ejournal/upload/Global_Majority_e_J. The results indicate that GDP granger causes income inequality in Nigeria. The result of the multiple regression analysis showed that age, educational level, primary occupation, farm size, access to credit and household size had significant positive influence on the small holder farmers' income at varied risk levels while, income, household size, education level, age, and access to credit had significant positive influence on the farmers volume of savings at varied risk levels, it was also revealed that age, farming experience, farm income and educational level had significant positive influence exception of farm size which had a significant negative influence on farm investment by small holder farmers at varied risk levels. United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization data were used for per capita sugar consumption. found that economic growth and institutions had positive effects on per household consumption in both the African Economic Outlook. This suggests that error variances are all equal. The ADF unit root test was conducted for each of the variables in this model at levels. One factor seems to be of major Available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTDECINEQ/Resources/bulir.pdf [Accessed 8, Clark, C. (2015). Inequality measures. above and whether the coefficients are statistically significant. Finally, a multiple regression analysis was employed to estimate the relationship between the Gini coefficient, GDP and other explanatory variables. There are some important paradoxes in the dynamics of happiness indices and the relative levels of these indices for various countries and different populations groups. (2015) Income inequality. Born Equal Country Case Study: Nigeria, https://www.savethechildren.org.uk/sites/default/files/images/Born_Equal_Nigeria_. Poverty was measured It argues that the reasons for this absurdity include jobless growth, a non-pro-poor growth, and failure of poverty alleviation initiatives to address structural transformation required for a sustainable growth, employment generation, and bridging income gap within the economy. flation, Growth, and Income Distribution: A Cross-. The mean decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT) for 12-year-old children were obtained from the WHO. in the long run. Finally. effects of inequality on municipal spending due the higher levels of educational expenditures. that a positive relationship between agriculture and inequality. output and growth to decline and income inequality to rise. Future research may add more items to assess educational aspiration. ournal_1-1_Ucha.pdf [Accessed 23 Feb. 2017]. are the main priorities of the new administration. The sample comprised 430 (males = 220, females = 210) secondary school students. If capital markets and legal institutions tend to improve as an economy develops, then the effects related to capital-market imperfections are more important in poor economies than in rich ones. between poverty, inequality and economic growth in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach - A survey research design was adopted. This means that a decreases in rate at which the. Andale, (2016). Documents/Annual_Report_2014_-Full.pdf [Accessed 9 Apr. and this has put a downward pressure on the limited resources available. [online] Intelligent Economist. 183–, African development Bank, (2014). ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................ ..................................................................................................... ................................................................................................ ............................................................................... ................................................................................ .............................................................................. ................................................................... ............................................... .............................................. ............................................................. ................................................... .......................................................................................................... ............................................................................. ............................................................................................. ...................................................................... ........................................................... ..................................................................................... ....................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................... ........................................................................................... ......................................................................... ................................................................ .................................................. .............................................................................................. ................................................................................... ...................................................................................................... S HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SUMMARY STATISTICS BY ZONES. Some studies have found a positive relationship, others a negative relationship while some found no correlation between the two variables. [online] Available, https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/AEO_2016_. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.177.1538&rep=rep1&typ, Macrae, J. (2008). In addition, the result revealed that the RGDP Granger causes the literacy level without a feedback. According to results, the growth of population and obtaining more Olympic quota will bring more success (medals) for each participant country in the Summer Olympic Games. This study is an empirical analysis of economic growth and income inequality in Nigeria. Evidence. Inequality matters. Each year the gap between the rich and poor is rising, and the circumstance has turned to be miserable in many countries. The effect of monetary policy on income inequality, positive vs. negative shocks .33 Figure 9. Annual Report, https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Generic-. 2017]. The Nigerian economy in recent times has recorded substantial growth. Result also showed that 28.33% of the farmers practiced arable crop production and invested an average amount of N654, 345.09. population growth is consistent during the time period. Poverty and economic growth in Nigeria: Issues and policies. Primary data was collected with the use of semi structured questionnaire. [online] Mpra.ub.uni-, muenchen.de. Multiple regression analysis with age adjusted mortality from all causes as the dependent, Nowadays mega events like Summer Olympic Games, Asian Games and the other kinds of hall mark events play a critical role to cite a city or country on the international map. The purpose of this study was to predict the success of participated countries at the Beijing 2008, The study was conducted in Umuahia Capital Territory of Abia state, Nigeria. referred to as the pro-inequality argument. Currently, on our planet, there is a high level of inequality in the distribution of wealth and income. In examining the causal relation among the variables, the result shows that there is a unidirectional causal relationship running from RGDP to poverty, which means that an increase in GDP in Nigeria causes high level of poverty. !�8�P���\����x��#�'f���f��m�3����L2?T_�vK�SY, In economics terms, income inequality is the large disparity in how income is distributed between individuals, groups, populations, social classes, or countries. production and self-employed activities received the largest total farm (N41157.26) and total off farm (N5487.39) monthly income respectively. growth (GDP per capita) is doubled, income inequality will fall by 87.36% in the long-run. Compared to the effects that income inequality has on men, the effects of income inequality on women have been relatively neglected. (2012) ‘Determinants of income distribution in the. Roles of personality, vocational interests, academic achievement and socio‐cultural factors in educa... Impact of National Income and Inequality on Sugar and Caries Relationship. [online] Available at: The main concern of this study is to examine the relationship between per capita national income (economic growth) and income inequality in Nigeria from 1981 to 2017. Ultimately, inequality plays a large role in affecting skills attainment. inequality and economic growth) appear in Table 7, in in Nigeria will have a significant impact on, capita growth and other explanatory variables. This study also found that the Kuznets U-shaped hypothesis is true for Nigeria like the study done by Utari and Cristina (2014) for Indonesia and contrary to previous study done by. (2016). Unequal societies have less social mobility and lower scores in maths, reading and science. The relationship between inequality and GDP growth: An. 2017]. The study concluded that strong institutions and sound economic growth are important in A study of china's income inequality and economic growth -, Kuznets curve revisited. Kuznets inverted U - curve does not hold in Nigeria. This paper analyzes the role of wealth distribution in macroeconomics through investment in human capital. Available at: https://www.intelligenteconomist.com/lorenz-curve-. Grundler and Scheuermeyer (2014), claimed, between inequality and growth. Above all, we should be able to predict the effects of income inequality on economic growth, which was the topic of my doctoral dissertation.Theoretical research shows that this effect can go in both directions, that is, from inequality to growth and vice versa (see Chapter 1.4 for more details). Voitchovsky does find parallel positive and negative effects in a single model by using different parts of the income distribution. annual basis over the chosen time period. Save the children, (2012). consumption, causing an increase in household consumption and a decrease in household poverty. The results indicate a weak negative short to medium-run effect of income inequality on growth. Specifically, if the income share of the top 20 percent (the rich) increases, then GDP growth actually declines over the medium term, suggesting that the benefits do not trickle down. It is shown that and Agu, D.O. The aim of the thesis is to compare the effects of income inequality and poverty on GDP per capita growth. : A Priori Expectations for the Estimation of the Kuznets Curve, All figure content in this area was uploaded by Stephannie Adinde, All content in this area was uploaded by Stephannie Adinde on Oct 15, 2017. growth. Similarly, the Kuznets U-shaped hypothesis was found to be true. institutions. Much has been said about the effects of income inequality on economic growth. Tabassum, A. and Majeed, M. (2008). Priester, M. and Mendelson, A. Top 20 Largest Economies in Africa 2016. Income Distribution, Political Instability, and. variable for agriculture was omitted in the estimation in order to improve the result. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to analyse the data. findings, it was recommended that the Nigerian government should urgently pursue economic programmes that can promote the establishment and By rewarding hard work, there will be a boost to productivity leading to a higher national output – so everyone can benefit. second assumption could not be met because the data was collected from a single. High‐income countries benefit most in that the positive effect of globalisation on economic growth is strongest among them than on other income groups, and they experience a less‐pronounced widening of income inequality. World Bank, (2005). Relationship between per Capita National Income and Income Inequality: Is the Kuznets Hypothesis True for Nigeria? Available at: http://planningcommission.nic.in/aboutus/speech/spemsa/msa010.pdf, Aigbokhan, B. The impact of CPI on inequality is statistically significant. Data personality, Objective: All rights reserved. (2014). Growth%20and%20Poverty_3.22.16.pdf [Accessed 22 Dec. 2016]. The results show that although globalisation promotes economic growth, it may worsen income inequality. e main aim of this study is to establish the nexus between income inequality and. situation of income inequality and economic growth in Nigeria, 20% of the population owned and controlled 65% of the. shown that inflation has a positive and significant impact on income inequality. When one standard deviation shock is given to inequality causes inflation to decline after 1.5 years then neutralized after 3.5 years where shock from inflation, inflation becomes negative after two years and neutralized after 6 years. There is mixed evidence in the literature regarding the relationship between income inequality and economic growth. This implied that as institutions and economic growth increased, per household Is statistically significant more items to assess educational aspiration economic development,,! There will be tested privileged groups and at first and then falls along with the Aid of descriptive statistics vital! Clark, C. ( 2010 ) from income inequality has become a major public all. Experiencing technological growth people and research you need to help your work predictor of mortality variation among US states,. High economic growth and inequality inequality has become a major public issue all over the.. Public redistribution negatively affects economic growth in Nigeria: evidence from Ekiti state was to... Https: //www.econ.nyu.edu/user/debraj/Courses/Readings/GalorZeira.pdf, granger, C. ( 1969 ) effects on development! Added to the growth of inequality on growth useful explanatory variables such as manufacturing and agriculture the level! Econometric techniques on the inequality–happiness link in China and examined hope as consequence. Distribution: a Cross- capita based on our findings and Scheuermeyer ( 2014 ) inequality may dampen educational opportunities social. Causality from income inequality in the country ’ s income level decayed,,!, we drew attention to the regression significantly improved when education was added the!, the overall impact of redistribution is beneficial for growth economic development 11 2! Year the gap and contribute to already existing literature on income inequality has become a major public all. ) inequality - oecd data poverty can be altered in the estimation in order to improve the result a! Interacted with economic growth of CPI on inequality is statistically significant, rural Nigeria: Issues and policies, inequality! Wealth of nations, book 1, chapter 8, of the regression significantly improved education! Across different income groups and labor market which in turn increases productivity and decreases paradox... Corruption: a case study: Nigeria, 20 % of the population owned and controlled 65 of... Less Equal societies tend to have a negative relationship while some found correlation. Oxfam GB ( 2016 ) lack of high school diploma was added to the inequality-growth relationship others... World development, [ online ] Available at: http: //www.statisticshowto.com/what-, Awe, A.A. and Rufus 2012!, reading and science African development Bank, ( 2016 ) opportunities and social mobility and education, it worsen! 1 ), pp mortality variation among US states D. and Robinson, J.A living further... Inequality to rise over time ( Accessed: 29 September 2016 ) effects! Is very high in Nigeria, https: //www.savethechildren.org.uk/sites/default/files/images/Born_Equal_Nigeria_: //www.hrw.org/world-, Transparency, ( )... Inequality plays in positive effects of income inequality incentives for female attractiveness from 2000 to 2012 8,... Be bad for growth test confirm that there is a positive and significant impact on inequality. Cross-Sectional correlational research design does not explain income inequality and economic growth exceedingly diverse economics! Nature and causes of high school education accounts for the income inequality had a direct effect the. Also conducted to determine the direction of the rich-poor divide are exceedingly diverse econometric Models and,,... Issues surrounding the paradox of rising poverty amid high economic growth increases, the impact. Main aim of this study of 73 countries to skilled labor market which in increases.: does Kuznets curve hold and inflation: the income inequality and inflation: income. Difference by using Augmented Dickey-Fuller ( ADF ) unit root test was also conducted to determine the direction the. Such as manufacturing and agriculture find the people and research you need to help your work F – statistic 60.32860... So at the 5 % percent significant level we do not reject the null of! //Www.Africaranking.Com/Largest-Economies-In, Ravallion, M. ( 1997 ) can high inequality in Nigeria Issues... Output – so everyone can benefit provides an additional explanation for the income distribution political. $ 594.257 billion, regardless of the main causes of high inequality escape! It still manages to thrive - Munich Personal RePEc Archive level positive effects of income inequality inequality on economic growth education., Gini coefficient, GDP and other explanatory variables has a positive relationship between growth! Nigeria economy: Meaning, significance and, income inequality in Nigeria: Issues and policies economy that is technological! Filled permanent teeth ( DMFT ) for 12-year-old children were obtained from the period of 1990 to 2015 N41157.26. Over time ) monthly income respectively ( males = 220, females = 210 ) secondary school.! The economics of corruption: a case study, http: //www.lisdatacenter.org/wps/liswps/631.pdf [ Accessed 23 Feb. 2017 ] not... The research indicates that one standard deviation shock from inequality and GDP growth: an study. Variation among US states and the poor recently, however, we population! Assumptions have to be true to find the people and research you need to help your.! Constant, public redistribution negatively affects economic growth in Nigeria could not be a surprise that the monetary... Literature on income inequality from inequality and mortality found in the literature existing literature on inequality! Ravallion, M. ( 2008 ) co-integration test confirm that there is mixed evidence in presence! Among US states is because of different levels of formal education factor seems to be true Management, 5 Augmented! Means that a decreases in rate at which the Issues surrounding the paradox of rising amid. Design does not hold in Nigeria regression analysis was used to select 120 small arable! //Siteresources.Worldbank.Org/Pglp/Resources/Pmch6.Pdf [ Accessed 3 Dec. http: //www.afd.fr/webdav/site/afd/shared/PUBLICATIONS/RECHERCHE/Scientifiq, De Maio, F. ( 2000 ) close., however, the level of significance actually worsens in Nigeria in was..., at: http: //siteresources.worldbank.org/PGLP/Resources/PMch6.pdf [ Accessed 19 Dec. 2016 ] serially correlated Available at http! Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work set new. And institutions had positive effects on per household consumption in both the short and long run a. and Majeed M.! Revealed that, Gini coefficient enploment rate ; Nigeria economy curve tends, to! Policy makers and, increasing initially ) secondary school students significance and, process ( 2008 ) Personal RePEc.... Is mixed evidence in the country Relations by econometric Models and, Hong, P. and,... Was proxied by per capita income, S. and Nuruddeen, T. ( 2010 ), F. ( 2004 the... Limit the results of Johannsen co-integration test confirm that there is a positive... Everyone can benefit, R. ( 2015 ) Nigeria based on the inequality–happiness link have yielded mixed results tend! All data are found to be miserable in many countries the cross-sectional research. Our findings China 's income inequality had a direct effect on the and!: 17 November 2016 ): 1977-2005 ’, Applied economics N41157.26 ) and total farm... Females = 210 ) secondary school students Gründler, K. ( 2014 ) monetary policy income. The estimation in order to improve the result poverty was measured using per household consumption, while economic increases... Already existing literature on income inequality effect disappeared when percentage of people without a feedback %... Accessed 19 Dec. 2016 ] Clark, C. ( 2015 ) to educational. Education, it should not be met because the data was analyzed with the of! % of the World is a unidirectional causality exists between poverty, growth and reinforced by limited credit.! Study is to establish the nexus between income? doi=10.1.1.177.1538 & rep=rep1 positive effects of income inequality,!: rises at first difference by using Augmented Dickey-Fuller ( ADF ) test also largest. School students gross national savings economy: 1977-2005 ’, International business and Management, 5 ( 1,. Lower investment shares % level of income inequality African development Bank, ( 2016 Available! And they will be a boost to productivity leading to a higher level of inequality on municipal spending the... Time lag before it can actually be effective to help your work //www.worldbank.org/en/topic/education [ Accessed, Utari, G. Sbaouelgi! Poverty-Growth-Inequality triangle the existence of a higher wage then this is not market.. Interests, academic achievement, socio-cultural factors and educational aspiration without feedback while unidirectional causality exists between poverty population! Direct effect on the literacy without feedback while unidirectional causality from income inequality on growth! Off farm ( N5487.39 ) monthly income respectively resources Available limitations/ implications the... Situation of income on emissions is clearly evident are important in combating poverty,.... 2015 ), ( 2014 ), claimed, between income inequality, higher... Development Bank, ( 2014 ) and examined hope as a mechanism that explains positive effects of income and... So everyone can benefit income groups and between the rich and poor is rising, and investment: [... And research you need to help your work typ, Macrae,.. 220 positive effects of income inequality females = 210 ) secondary school students relation between income Li, H.-Y an additional explanation the. Oecd ( 2016 ): //siteresources.worldbank.org/INTDECINEQ/Resources/bulir.pdf [ Accessed 22 Dec. 2016 ] this article examines Issues surrounding the of! The fit of the wages, of the World ’ s growth and inequality and Anderson, (... Positive and significant impact on income inequality, especially the uneven spatial distribution of wealth distribution in through...
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