Conversely, the Out of Africa hypothesis has also been used to emphasize the importance of racial difference. “Sixty Years of Modern Human Origins in the American Anthropological Association.” American Anthropologist 105 (1): 87–98. Read Later ; Print . Therefore, while it seems increasingly likely that some gene-flow occurred between African and non-African populations both before and after the emergence of modern humans, and the “new species” version of the Out of Africa hypothesis appears to be incorrect, the importance of Africa as a central region for the evolution of recent humans is well supported. However, they are a part of the construction of “race” because they represent an easily conceived and visualized mechanism to explain human differences—a process of continual isolation, branching, and separation (Caspari 2003). J Galway-Witham, Nature, 546(7657):212-214, U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, June 2017. Colloquium X: The Origin of Modern Man, ed. Sarich and Miele (2004), for example, have argued that since the species is young, “race” must be biologically important: With little time for differences to accrue, there must have been isolation, strong selection, and different evolutionary histories. These waves of migration steadily occurred over the world and eventually became the human civilization. This model of replacement without mixture in the process of recent human origin was accepted by some paleoanthropologists (Stringer and Andrews 1988) and remains an influential model in the early 2000s. Christine Hertler, Ingo Timm, et al., Volume 413, Part B, ScienceDirect, August 22, 2016. 2 vols. The Out of Africa hypothesis, the theory of a recent unique African origin for the modern human species, was supported by early interpretations of the variation of mtDNA (Cann, Stoneking, and Wilson 1987; Stoneking and Cann 1989). “The ‘Afro-European Sapiens Hypothesis’ and Hominid Evolution in East Asia During the Late Middle and Upper Pleistocene.” In The Early Evolution of Man, with Special Emphasis on Southeast Asia and Africa, ed. Intermediate are the African hybridization-and-replacement model and the assimilation model. Cann, R. L., M. Stoneking, and A. C. Wilson. Early major proponents of this theory were led by British paleontologist Chris Stringer in direct opposition to scholars supporting the multiregional hypothesis, who argued that Hss evolved several times from Homo erectus in several regions. Árnason, Úlfur. Race is intricately involved in human origin theories because these theories address the origin and nature of human biological variation. Assuming that mtDNA is selectively neutral and assuming constant population size, the amount of variation (number of nucleotide differences) between individuals and populations was interpreted to be a consequence of two factors: mutation rate and time since divergence of the mtDNA. However, it is now undeniable that we share different levels of the mixture of species which developed and died out in Eurasia. When it was first proposed, it was used to validate progressive political positions; it gained considerable publicity as underscoring the close relationships of living humans. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. What is the Out-of-Africa theory? While Coon’s overt linkage of polygenism to racial discrimination caused a backlash in the anthropological community, with many anthropologists and other scientists denouncing Coon (Dobzhansky 1963; Hulse 1963; Montagu 1964), the tree premise on which his model was based has been more ingrained. Bouri (Ethiopia) is located within the Middle Awash study area of East Africa and includes four archaeological and paleontological-bearing members dated between 2.5 million and 160,000 years ago. _____, M. A. Batzer, M. Gurven, et al. Africa is central to both single origin and multiregional models of modern human origin. In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens). The Origin of Races. … _____, and R. Caspari. That migration (sometimes confusingly called "Out of Africa 2" because it was more recently proposed than the original OOA theory but refers to an older migration) is generally regarded as a "failed dispersal" because only a handful of Homo sapiens sites have been identified as being this old outside of Africa. Race: The Reality of Human Differences. “A Novel Notion of Neanderthal.” Natural History 97: 16–21. Dobzhansky, T. 1963. Traductions en contexte de "Out of Africa theory" en anglais-français avec Reverso Context : Before the Out of Africa theory was generally accepted, there was no consensus on where the human species evolved and, consequently, where modern human behavior arose. "“Out of Africa” Hypothesis An examination of over 5,000 teeth from early human ancestors shows that many of the first Europeans probably came from Asia By Nikhil Swaminathan on August 8… 1987. Stringer, C. B., and P. Andrews. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. 1998. Stringer, C. "Palaeoanthropology: On the origin of our species." Primary sources like bones and early tools have been gathered by archaeologists and scientists to for evidence about how early humans spread across the earth. Wolpoff, M. H. 1989. In the twenty years since this early research, genetic analyses have become far more sophisticated; in addition to mtDNA (which, because it does not recombine and is inherited as a single unit, can be considered only one gene), many nuclear genes now contribute to our understanding of human evolution, and the evolutionary models based on genetics have become more complicated. The Out of Africa hypothesis, the theory of a recent uniqueAfrican origin for the modern human species, was supported by early interpretations of the variation of mtDNA (Cann, Stoneking, and Wilson 1987; Stoneking and Cann 1989). 1964. Some models, reminiscent of the polygenism of the “American School” of the early. Deme (pronounced “deem,” from the Greek for “people” and originally referring to a political division within ancient Greece) has been used in bi…, genetics, evolution. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. “Reconstructing Human Origins in the Genomic Era.” Nature Reviews Genetics 7: 669–680. The New Scientist, 237(3163):12, ResearchGate, February 2018. Out of Africa is a 1985 American epic romantic drama film directed and produced by Sydney Pollack, and starring Meryl Streep and Robert Redford.The film is based loosely on the 1937 autobiographical book Out of Africa written by Isak Dinesen (the pseudonym of Danish author Karen Blixen), with additional material from Dinesen's 1960 book Shadows on the Grass and other sources. ~Don't copy from internet~ Please help! Those species are no longer with us except as tiny pieces of DNA. Omo Kibish (Ethiopia) contained the partial skeleton of an Hss who died around 195,000 years ago, alongside Levallois flakes, blades, core-trimming elements, and pseudo-Levallois points. Shanti Pappu, Haresh M. Rajapara, et al., Nature, 554, pages 97–101, February 1, 2018. 'out of africa' theory. Received January 7. th, 2012; revised February 4th, 2012; accepted March 10th, 2012 . Hirst, K. Kris. The theory is part of a “single origin hypothesis”, that suggests all humans are descended from early Homo sapiens who first evolved from Homo erectus (part of the wider hominid group) about 200,000 years ago in sub-Saharan Africa, who then migrated out of the African continent around 130,000 years ago in the first instance, followed by a later migration between 69,000 and 77,000 years ago. Some influential nineteenth-century evolutionary trees (Figure 2) depicted European racial groups with longer branches than other groups, implying that they are “more evolved.” The perceived inferiority, and shorter branches, of other racial groups were considered the consequence of their unique evolutionary histories. "The Out of Africa hypothesis and the ancestry of recent humans: Cherchez la femme (et l'homme)" Gene, 585(1):9-12. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2016.03.018, U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, July 1, 2016. 12 Jan. 2021 . Races: A Study of the Problems of Race Formation in Man. Sub-Saharan Fossil Hominids and Their Place in Human Evolution.” Journal of Human Evolution 4: 297–322. ==Supporting Evidence== '''Fossil Evidence:''' The oldest ''Homo sapiens'' fossils are found in Africa around 195,000 years ago. Smith, F. H., I. Jankovic, and I. Karavanic. Marean, Curtis W. "An Evolutionary Anthropological Perspective on Modern Human Origins." what is THE 'OUT OF AFRICA' THEORY . We did meet other human species — specifically Denisovans and Neanderthals — as we moved out into the world. It reproduces by mitosis, so all variation between mitochondria is a consequence of mutation. 2002. _____. It is well accepted that the hominid lineage (the unique human lineage since divergence from the last common ancestor with chimpanzees) evolved in Africa, and for two-thirds of its 6-million-year history was an exclusively African clade. 2006. John Hawks Weblog, May 6, 2010. Modern man coming out of Africa interbred with the Neanderthal in the Middle East. The oldest known Hss site in the world to date is Jebel Irhoud, in Morocco, where the skeletal remains of five archaic. Reyes-Centeno, Hugo. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. The Leopard’s Spots: Scientific Attitudes Toward Race in America 1815–59. Probably the most influential site for paleontologists' most recent change in understanding evolutionary processes was the 430,000-year-old Homo heidelbergensis site of Sima de los Huesos in Spain. The trees of some genes, particularly those on chromosomes that do not recombine, such as mtDNA and part of the Y chromosome, have shallow roots; other loci have roots that are millions of years old. It…, Biological evolution is the change in the allele frequency of a gene in a population over time. March, and M. Piperno, 127–132. While there are a number of nuclear loci that do fit the hypothesis (i.e., autosomal loci with roots four times as deep as the mtDNA and loci on the nonrecombining Y), the rate of discovery of loci with deep genealogical histories is rapidly increasing, and some of these have roots outside of Africa (Garrigan and Hammer 2006). Howells, W. W. 1942. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. All of these descendants in conjunction provide excellent support for the theory that F was long out of Africa. B. Birdsell. Mitochondria are organelles in the cytoplasm of cells, which play an important role in cell metabolism. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). (e.g., ref. Out of Africa doesn't say that non-Africans are more evolved or more intelligent. The time of this root, based on the mutation rate derived for mtDNA (assuming neutrality), was estimated to be between 100,000–200,000 years ago. However, the many loci that have a recent common ancestor in Africa, as well as the early appearance of many modern skeletal features there, indicate the importance of Africa for the origin of modern humans. Hawks, J., and G. Cochran. The hallmarks of the Out of Africa hypothesis are also addressed by multiregional evolution: Low genetic diversity among human populations is explained through gene-flow rather than recency of origin, and the greater genetic diversity in Africa is explained by larger population size, greater ecological diversity, and natural selection. That is to say some genetic change has happened in th…, Deme 26) began to point out that, sparse as they were, the earliest fossils that resembled members of our species came from southern and eastern Africa. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press. Fossil and genetic data support the hypothesis that there was gene-flow both between modern and archaic populations, and between geographic groups of modern humans after their emergence. Add your answer and earn points. "A revised chronology for Pleistocene paleolakes and Middle Stone Age – Middle Paleolithic cultural activity at Bîr Tirfawi – Bîr Sahara in the Egyptian Sahara." All but the multiregional model maintain that H. sapiens evolved solely in Africa and then deployed to Eurasia and eventually the Americas and Oceania. _____, and M. H. Wolpoff. Any selective sweep affecting mtDNA (or any other locus) will reduce variation and give gene trees an even shallower root. Mankind in the Making: The Story of Human Evolution. “Out of Africa Again and Again.” Nature 416:45–51. “Human Races: A Genetic and Evolutionary Perspective.” American Anthropologist 100 (3): 632–650. The alternatives to the Out of Africa hypothesis are versions of “Multiregional Evolution,” a model that hypothesizes evolutionary change within the human species with gene flow between “archaic” and “modern” humans rather than evolution due to recent speciation. Moreover, the fact that more variation occurred in African groups suggested Africa as the source. The Upper Herto Member (160,000 years BP) contained three hominin crania identified as Hss, associated with Middle Stone Age Acheulean transition tools, including, A single dispersal during MIS 5 (130,000–74,000 BP), A single dispersal during MIS 3 (60,000–24,000 BP). “Mitochondrial DNA and Human Evolution.” Nature 325: 31–36. In the creation of the “Eve Theory” (as the Out of Africa hypothesis was frequently called), this gene tree was interpreted as a population tree and the root was thought to represent a population bottleneck, a massive reduction in population size where variation is greatly reduced. Stanton, W. 1960. The earliest known pathway out of Africa probably occurred during Marine Isotope Stage 5e, or between 130,000-115,000 years ago, following along the Nile Corridor and into the Levant, evidenced by Middle Paleolithic sites at Qazfeh and Skhul. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps. "Neandertals Live!" This gene signature is best interpreted as being the result of an encounter between the two population somewhere in Northeast Australasia. New York: Alan R. Liss. P. Mellars and C. B. Stringer, 62–108. In the most common version of Out of Africa, modern humans are considered a new species, with negligible gene-flow (mating) between the migrating African people and the indigenous archaic groups. Both of the replacement models argue that… Véronique PAGNIER/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 3.0, 2.5, 2.0, 1,0. The Out of Africa, or mitochondrial “Eve Theory” as it is also known, has been promoted as underscoring the close relationship between all living humans, and the theory therefore gained ascendancy for sociopolitical reasons as well as scientific ones (Gould 1988). Encyclopedia of Race and Racism. A third and increasingly convincing human migration is the southern dispersal hypothesis, which argues that an additional wave of colonization occurred between those two better-known pulses. The movie won … “African Origins of Human Mitochondrial DNA.” In The Human Revolution: Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Humans, ed. Advances in gene sequencing technology in the 1980s provided the techniques to sequence the mitochondrial genome, and Rebecca Cann initially compared mtDNA variants from representatives of several different populations. The Out of Africa (OOA), or African replacement, hypothesis is a well-supported theory. ." Moore, J. H. 1994. Re-Examining the “Out of Africa” Theory and the Origin of Europeoids (Caucasoids) in Light of DNA Genealogy . The other groups of archaic humans essentially died out and became evolutionary dead ends. The Out of Africa hypothesis is no exception. Thus, the same theory can be used to support conflicting political ideologies. The fact that some groups left Africa and others didn't doesn't mean non-Africans are superior. The tree was the dominant model and the question was whether the root of the tree was recent or ancient. The fact that these two pulses occurred is largely undebated today. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Gene trees, like evolutionary trees in general, are hierarchical structures based on a particular gene or locus (these may be single nucleotides, haplotypes, genes, or the entire genome, which can be practical when the genome is short); variants of a gene that share more mutations are clustered together. Rainer Grün, Renaud Joannes-Boyau, et al., 546, pages 293–296, Nature, June 8, 2017. Much of the current genetic evidence is incompatible with the Out of Africa scenario because it does not reflect a bottleneck associated with recent speciation. 359, Issue 6374, pp. Lamb, Henry F. "150,000-year palaeoclimate record from northern Ethiopia supports early, multiple dispersals of modern humans from Africa." _____. The Out of Africa theory was bolstered in the early 1990s by research on mitochondrial DNA studies by Allan Wilson and Rebecca Cann, which suggested that all humans ultimately descended from one female: Mitochondrial Eve. The Out of Africa (OOA), or African replacement, hypothesis is a well-supported theory. Some anthropologists actually refer to this theory as the out of Africa II theory, as it involves a previous African exodus by tribes of Homo erectus, followed by the scattering of H. sapiens that eventually became human civilization. A Beginner's Guide to the Paleolithic Period or Stone Age, Complete Guide to the Denisovans, a Newer Hominid Species, Multiregional Hypothesis: Human Evolutionary Theory, Mousterian: A Middle Stone Age Technology That May Be Outmoded, Manot Cave - Early Modern Humans Out of Africa and Into the Levant, Lactose Intolerance and Lactase Persistence, History of Animal and Plant Domestication, Jebel Irhoud (Morocco). P. Mellars and C. B. Stringer, 17–30. In essence, Sima de los Huesos allowed paleontologists to be able to identify Hss with less stringent expectations. 456-459, Science, January 26, 2018. For example, selection favoring one locus on the mitochondrial genome affects the entire mitochondrial chromosome because it is inherited together. However, the date of retrieval is often important. However, while recent evidence no longer supports the Out of Africa hypothesis per se, Africa remains important in all theories of modern human origin. This was epitomized by Carleton Coon’s The Origin of Races (1963), in which the five major races Coon recognized were thought to have very long and separate evolutionary histories, sharing a common ancestor prior to the emergence of Homo sapiens. It has to be 200 words! The human skull that challenges the Out of Africa theory. Garrigan, D., and M. Hammer. quasi isolation in Europe during a long, relatively cool period that even included glaciations. The Concept of Race. The Out of Africa hypothesis gained rapid acceptance in the late 1980s, with pioneering analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which revealed very low mean nucleotide variation between the mtDNA of individuals from diverse populations (Cann, Stoneking, and Wilson 1987). New York: Knopf. Haeckel, E. 1884. Therefore, while current evidence suggests that the Out of Africa speciation model is incorrect, Africa played a predominant role in Pleistocene human evolution and the origin of modern humans. this image shows nomadic peoples migration to other parts of the world. The evolutionary development of the hominins brain was associated with increasing social complexity and the development of what we know as culture. 2005. The “Out of Africa” Theory is the generally accepted theory that modern humans migrated and expanded out of Africa hundreds of thousands of years ago. “Genetics of Modern Human Origins and Diversity.” Annual Review of Anthropology 27: 1–23. The genetic backing of the “Out of Africa Theory” strongly supports the legitimacy of the theory, and provides evidence that it is a legitimate theory of how modern humans came to populate the earth. "New Fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the Pan-African Origin of Homo Sapiens." 5 days ago. Advances in gene sequencing technology in the 1980s provided the techniques to sequence the mitochondrial genome, and Rebecca Cann initially compared mtDNA variants from representatives of several different populations. "On the Origin of Modern Humans: Asian Perspectives." Such population bottlenecks often accompany speciations, and hence the mtDNA data were thought to reflect the time and place of the birth of the modern human species. "Humanity's early exodus from Africa." Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. 2004. New York: Appleton. Gerhard W. Weber, Rolf Quam, et al., Vol. Race and Human Evolution. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 69: 145–165. "“Out of Africa” Hypothesis P. Andrews and J. L. Franzen. It argues that every living human being is descended from a small group of Homo sapiens (abbreviated Hss) individuals in Africa, who then dispersed into the wider world, meeting and displacing earlier forms such as Neanderthals and Denisovans. Protsch, R. 1975. 1950. In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the " Out of Africa " theory ( OOA ), recent single-origin hypothesis ( RSOH ), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model ( RAO ), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans ( Homo sapiens ). Richter, Daniel. One of the original papers laying claim to charting our ancient ancestors movements and origin, The Recent African Genesis of Humans, written by Professors Alan Wilson and Rebecca Cann, is acknowledged as the closing chapter in this mystery. Racial thinking dominated the science of human variation; the human species was thought to be composed of a number of discrete types of people (“races”) who had separate origins (Stanton 1960), and after the rise of Darwinian thinking, separate evolutionary histories (Figure 1). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Because of recombination, autosomal genes within the same individual will have very different evolutionary trees. Trans. "Testing modern human out-of-Africa dispersal models and implications for modern human origins." Therefore, Out of Africa (or a population bottleneck at speciation) is only one of many possible explanations for the genetic observations of loci with shallow rooted gene trees (Garrigan and Hammer 2006; Templeton 1998, 2002; Relethford 1998, 2001). Thus, the question of “the origin of races” focused on whether human races had a recent or an ancient common ancestor. Gould, S. J. https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/out-africa-hypothesis, "“Out of Africa” Hypothesis Did Humans First Evolve in Africa? ''Homo sapiens'' fossils found outside Africa are not nearly as old. However, recent evidence has shown that some sexual interaction between Hss and Denisovans and Neanderthals occurred, although at present their contribution to Homo sapiens DNA is considered fairly minor. _____. K. Kris Hirst is an archaeologist with 30 years of field experience. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. . Racial thinking and the concomitant branching models were so widely accepted that the alternative view—that of a “network” or “trellis” depicting the evolution of the human species as interconnected groups—was largely ignored, or misinterpreted (Figure 3). , Morocco, and A. G. Thorne variation and give gene trees even... 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