4-13. Webster, Dean, and the Huntington-Hill method have never violated quota on any US states dataset so far, and according to some vaguely-described computer experiments by B&Y would be expected to do so only with probability 0.00061, 0.00154, and 0.000286 respectively, which in the case of Webster would be once every 1600 apportionments, i.e. What finally passed in 1929 was a bill requiring the President to send to the Congress apportionments based on Webster, on Hill, and on the method used in the previous apportionment. From Ideal. • Dean’s Method – Cutoﬀ for rounding is (n − 1)n n − 0.5. Difference. Officially, Hamilton’s method was in place and the size of the House was agreed to be 292. dean: Return apportioned vector according to Dean's Method In jalapic/apportR: Apportionment Tools and Data Description Usage Arguments Value References Further details Examples Officially, Dean’s method of apportionment has never been used. Montana . Relative . Some in the Congress were so displeased with the state of affairs that a bill was introduced to enshrine a permanent apportionment method. Difference. Mathematics ofApportionment 229 All of these apportionment schemes, except for Hamilton's, are examples of divisor methods. Each apportionment method discussed in this report has a rational basis, and for each, there is at least one test according to which it is the most equitable. NOT THIS JAMES DEAN WE'RE TALKING ABOUT James Dean (1776-1849) Professor of Astronomy & Mathematics Dartmouth College University of Vermont Historical Significance: Method of Harmonic Means (1832) DEAN VS. WEBSTER What does The absolute and relative differences between the actual average district size and the ideal district size in an apportionment using the Dean Method (Montana has 2 Representatives, and Washington has 8 Representatives) are as follows: Average. But it was perhaps used in 1870 without being described. The question of how the concept of fairness can best be defined, in the context of evaluating an apportionment formula, remains open. DEAN'S METHOD Dean's method was created by James Dean. District Size Absolute. To introduce a few apportionment method names at the point, Webster’s method was used after the US Census of 1840, 1910 and 1930. Huntington-Hill (or Huntington, or Hill, or the method of equal proportions) has been used after every Census since 1940. Pp. Consequently, But the actual apportionment that occurred agreed with Dean’s method, not Hamilton’s method. Congress never agreed on an apportionment method, so the U.S. House was not reapportioned until after [7:227. From Ideal. The 1870 Apportionment. Professor Edelman discusses the background of "one person one vote" in the congressional apportionment context and asserts that because of a mathematical flaw, the Court in U.S. Department of Commerce v. 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